Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range. It is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport — Air, Road, Rail and Sea along with 5 other major cities in India. It is also known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after Bangalore & 13th best in India. The population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India.
Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India. This port handles 75 per cent of India’s coffee and cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. This coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India’s independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.
Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km (19 mi). The city has extended in the eastward direction up to Vamanjoor and Padil. The city’s landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. This coastal city has many skyscrapers of 30 and 40 plus floors. India’s first and only 3D Planetarium is situated in the port city of Mangalore. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon.
Mangalore is named after the Hindu goddess Mangaladevi.
Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana Buddhist sect. According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way. Eventually she died, and the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death. The city got its name from the temple.
One of the earliest references to the city’s name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom. According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas (stones) of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Even before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means ‘auspicious’). The city is well known as Mangaluru in Kannada, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city). During the British rule from 1799, Mangalore (anglicised from Mangaluru), stuck as the official appellation. However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word “Mangalore” is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru. The name of this town also appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India
Mangalore’s diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning “junction”, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers. In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala.
The city is called the Gateway of Karnataka and lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. The various temples and buildings in Mangalore include the Mangaladevi Temple, Kadri Manjunatha temple, St Aloysius Chapel, the Rosario Cathedral, Milagres Church, Dargah of Hazrat Shareef ul Madni at Ullal and the Zeenath Baksh Jumma Masjid in Bunder.
The city is also known for beaches such as Panambur, Tannirbavi, NITK beach, Sasihithlu beach, Someshwara beach, Ullal beach, Kotekar beach and Batapady beach. Panambur and Thannirbhavi beaches attract tourists from across the country. Panambur beach has many facilities including jet ski rides, Boating, dolphin viewing, food stalls, besides trained beach lifeguards and patrol vehicles to ensure the safety of the visitors. Saavira Kambada Basadi is situated 34 km (21 mi) northeast of Mangalore in the town of Moodabidri. The Sultan Battery watch tower, built by Tipu Sultan, situated in Boloor, is on the banks of Gurupura River where one can take the ferry ride by paying small amount across the river and reach Tannirbhavi Beach. Adyar waterfalls is at the outskirts at about 12 km (7.5 mi) from the city.
The city has developed and maintains public parks such as Pilikula Nisargadhama, Kadri Park at Kadri, Tagore Park at Light House Hill, Gandhi Park at Gandhinagar, Tannirbavi Tree Park, Arise Awake Park at Karangalpady and Corporation Bank Park at Nehru Maidan. Pilikula comprises the zoo, botanical garden, lake, water park (Manasa), planetarium (Swami Vivekananda Planetarium) and a golf course (Pilikula Golf Course) which is set in an area of 35 acres.
Mangalore Dasara, a ten-day festival at Sri Gokarnatheswara temple attracts devotees from various states of India who visit Mangalore to witness Dasara. Mangaladevi Temple is another temple which attracts devotees from all over India during Navaratri.
Neer dosa, a variant of dosa and pundi (rice ball), are native to Mangalore.
Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the region. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Well-known Mangalorean dishes include Kori Rotti, Neer dosa, Pundi, Patrode, Mangalore Buns, Mangalore bajji, Macaroon etc. Mangalorean Cuisine is also known for Fish and chicken dishes like Bangude Pulimunchi (spicy sour silver-grey mackerels), Boothai Gasi (Sardine Semi-Gravy), Anjal fry, Mangalorean Chicken Sukka, Kori rotti, Chicken Ghee Roast etc. Since Mangalore is a Coastal city, fish forms the staple diet of most people. The Konkani Hindu community’s specialties include Daali thoy, Bibbe-upkari (cashew based), Val val, Avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, Paagila podi, and Chane gashi. Mangalorean Catholics’ Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna—idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas—Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani of the Beary Muslims are well-known dishes. Pickles such as Happala, Sandige and Puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known throughout the state and region.
Mangalooru Samachara, the first ever newspaper in Kannada, was brought out by Rev. Hermann Friedrich Mögling of the Basel mission in 1843. The first ever Kannada to English dictionary was published in Mangalore by Ferdinand Kittel in 1894. Major national English language newspapers such as Times of India, The Hindu, The New Indian Express, Deccan Herald and Daijiworld publish localised Mangalore editions. The Madipu, Mogaveera, Samparka (Contact) and Saphala (Success) are well-known Tulu periodicals in Mangalore. Popular Konkani language periodicals published in the city are Raknno (Guardian), Konknni Dirvem (Konkani Treasure) and Kannik (Offering).Beary periodicals like Jyothi (Light) and Swatantra Bharata (Independent India) are also published from Mangalore. Among Kannada newspapers, Udayavani (Morning Voice) By Manipal Press Ltd, Vijaya Karnataka (Victory of Karnataka), Prajavani (Voice of the People), Kannada Prabha (Kannada Radiance), Varthabharathi (Indian News), Samyukta Karnataka (United Karnataka) and Hosa Digantha (New Horizon) are popular. Evening newspapers such as Karavali Ale (Waves from the Coast), Mangalooru Mitra (Friend of Mangalore), Sanjevani (Evening Voice) and Jayakirana (Rays of Victory) are also published in the city. The Konkani language newspaper Kodial Khabar is released fortnightly. Malayalam newspapers such as Malayala Manorama (Malayalam Entertainer) and Madhyamam (Medium) publish localised Mangalore editions.
The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable television also provides broadcast cable channels of independently owned private networks. Canara TV and V4 Digital infotech network (local Multi System Operator) transmits daily video news channels, Live events and cultural programs happening in and around Mangalore through local channels. Conditional access system (CAS) is available to all the television viewers in Mangalore city. Direct-to-Home (DTH) services are available in Mangalore via Dish TV, Tata Sky, Sun Direct DTH, Airtel digital TV, Reliance BIG TV and Videocon d2h. All India Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri (with frequency 100.3 MHz) that airs program during scheduled hours. Mangalore’s private FM stations include Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, Big 92.7 FM and Red 93.5 FM. Radio SARANG 107.8 is a community radio run by St. Aloysius College. There are multiple local TV channels which telecast programmes, news in Tulu, Konkani, Beary, and Kannada. Namma TV, V4 News and Spandana are some of the local TV channels. Namma Kudla and Posa Kural are the Tulu channels dedicated to Tulu programs.
Mangalore is home to the Tulu film industry, which releases one film per month on average.Popular Tulu films include Kadala Mage (Son of the Sea) and Suddha (The Cleansing Rites).Tulu dramas, mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta, are very popular. In 2006, a Tulu film festival was organised in Mangalore. Tulu Cinemotsava 2015 was organized in January 2015.
Mangalore International Airport (IATA: IXE) is an international airport which is located near Bajpe / Kenjar, and is located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) north-east of the Mangalore city centre. It operates regular scheduled flights to major cities in India and the Middle East. It is the second largest and second busiest airport in the state of Karnataka. The new terminals and runways at the airport accommodate both cargo and passenger requirements. State-run government buses Vajra Volvo ply between the city and the airport.
The Netravati railway bridge serves as the gateway to Mangalore.
Five National Highways pass through Mangalore. NH-66 (previously known as NH-17), which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Kanyakumari (in Tamil Nadu), passes through Mangalore in a north–south direction and connects with Udupi, Bhatkal, Karwar, Goa, etc. in north and Kannur, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, etc. in the south while NH-75 (previously known as NH-48) runs eastward to Bangalore and Vellore. NH-169 (previously known as NH-13) runs north-east from Mangalore to Shimoga. NH-73, a 315-km long National Highway connects Mangalore to Tumkur. NH-275 also connects Mangalore with Bangalore via Mysore. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore Port to Surathkal on NH-66 and BC Road junction on NH-75. Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), a 37.5-kilometre (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads.
Even though Mangalore’s city bus service is dominated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is plying buses in multiple routes.Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist—city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. KSRTC operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA). There are also KSRTC JnNurm green colour city buses plying from the State Bank bus stand.These buses travel to different parts of the city and its suburbs.
Cab providers like Ola Cabs and Uber also offer transport services in the city, and their services are extended to the Mangalore International Airport
Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907. Mangalore was also the starting point of India’s longest rail route. The city has three railway stations—Mangalore Central (at Hampankatta) , Mangalore Junction (at Kankanadi) and Surathkal railway station(at Surathkal). A railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore with Hassan. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006 and passenger traffic in December 2007.]Mangalore is also connected to Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kollam through the Southern Railway and to Mumbai, Bhatkal, Karwar, Gujarat, Ajmer and Goa via the Konkan Railway.
The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage, and logistical services, while the New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk, and fluid cargoes. The New Mangalore Port is also equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers. It is also the station for the coast guard. This artificial harbour is India’s eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at New Mangalore Port.
Cricket is a popular sport in the city. Mangala Stadium and B.R. Ambedkar Cricket Stadium (near NMPT) are Dakshina Kannada district’s full-fledged cricket stadiums, situated in Mangalore.The Sports Authority of India (SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium. Mangalore United is a Mangalore-based Karnataka Premier League (KPL) franchise owned by Fiza Developers. Mangalore Premier League (MPL) is a cricket tournament organized by the Karnataka Regional Cricket Academy. The Central Maidan or Nehru Maidan in Mangalore is another important venue hosting domestic tournaments and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments. The Mangalore Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organisation in the city and has been elected as the institutional member for the Mangalore Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket Association (KSCA). Lokesh Rahul, commonly known as KL Rahul and Budhi Kunderan, a former Indian wicket keeper are from Mangalore. Ravi Shastri, who represented India for several years in international cricket as an all-rounder and captained the team, is of Mangalorean descent.
Mangalore hosted the first edition of Indian Open of Surfing in 2016.Mantra Surf Club, located at Mulki has trained surfers to represent India at the International Surfing Association (ISA) World SUP and Paddleboard Championship, held in Fiji. The second edition of Indian Open of Surfing was also held in Mangalore.
Football is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments. Dakshina Kannada District Football Association (DKDFA), annually organizes the “Independence Day Cup” on the occasion of Independence Day at District Football Grounds adjacent to Nehru Maidan. Various schools and colleges from across Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, and Kodagu districts participate and the matches are conducted under seven categories — higher primary school (boys and girls), high school (boys and girls), P.U.C. boys, college boys, P.U.C girls and college girls.
Chess is also a popular indoor sport in the city. Mangalore is the headquarters of South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.
The Kambala race of Kadri is a distinctive feature of Tuluva culture.
Traditional sports like Kambala (buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields, and Korikatta (Cockfight) are very popular in the city. The Kambala of Kadri is a traditional sports event organized within the city limits. A locality in Mangalore named “Kadri Kambla”, is named after this sport. Plikula Kambala is yet another Kambala event organized within the city.
International Kite festivals are organized in Panambur Beach which attract kite enthusiasts from countries like France, (Germany), Netherlands, Australia and United Kingdom. The city’s own group of kite enthusiasts — Team Mangalore — participates with kites named Kathakali, Yaksha, Gajaraja, Bhoota Kola, Pushpaka Vimana, Garuda and Vibhishana.
Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas. Pilikula Nisargadhama, an integrated theme park, has a fully functional nine-hole golf course at Vamanjoor. U S Mallya Indoor Stadium offers sporting facilities for badminton and basketball in the city.
The Mangalore City Police Department is headed by a Commissioner of Police. Mangalore is also the headquarters of the Western Range Police, covering the western districts of Karnataka, which is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IGP).
National Institute of Technology (Karnataka) in Surathkal is among the premier institutes of India.
The pre-collegiate mediums of instruction in schools are predominantly English and Kannada, and the medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation is English.Schools and colleges in Mangalore are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards.
The earliest schools established in Mangalore were the Canara High School (1891),Basel Evangelical School (1838). St. Ann’s High School (1870), Rosario High School (1858)and Milagres School (1848).
Popular educational institutions in the city are
Srinivas Institute of Technology
KS Hegde Medical Academy
A. J. Institute of Medical Science
Father Muller Medical College
Father Muller Homeopathic Medical College
Yenepoya Medical College
Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre
Mangalore Institute of Technology & Engineering (MITE)
Bearys Institute of Technology
St. Joseph Engineering College
P.A. College of Engineering
St.Agnes College (1921)
St. Aloysius College (1879)
School of Social Work Roshni Nilaya
St Theresa’s School
Canara Engineering College
Sri Sathya Sai Loka Seva Trust Educational Institutions at Alike
Karnataka (Govt.) Polytechnic
The Kasturba Medical College established in 1953, was India’s first private medical college and also Manipal College Of Dental Sciences (MCODS) Established. A public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore. Mangalore University was established on 10 September 1980. It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts, and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution.